Noninvasive strategies for breast cancer early detection
G. Trecate, P. M-L Sinues & R. Orlandi
Breast cancer screening and presurgical diagnosis are currently based on mammography, ultrasound and more sensitive imaging technologies; however, noninvasive biomarkers represent both a challenge and an opportunity for early detection of cancer.
An extensive number of potential breast cancer biomarkers have been discovered by microarray hybridization or sequencing of circulating DNA, noncoding RNA and blood cell RNA; multiplex analysis of immune-related molecules and mass spectrometry-based approaches for high-throughput detection of protein, endogenous peptides, circulating and volatile metabolites. However, their medical relevance and their translation to clinics remain to be exploited. Once they will be fully validated, cancer biomarkers, used in combination with the current and emerging imaging technologies, represent an avenue to a personalized breast cancer diagnosis.