Tobias Bruderer; Thomas Gaisl; Martin T. Gaugg; Nora Nowak; Bettina Streckenbach; Simona Müller; Alexander Moeller; Malcolm Kohler; Renato Zenobi*
On-line analysis of exhaled breath offers insight into a person’s metabolism without the need for sample preparation or sample collection. Due to its noninvasive nature and the possibility to sample continuously, the analysis of breath has great clinical potential
Background Collagen-related amino acids are significantly increased in exhaled breath of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients compared with healthy controls. The detection of these amino acids using real-time breath analysis results in a good discrimination between the groups, indicating the possibility for a rapid, non-invasive screening for IPF.
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the most important metabolic pathway for cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. It provides and collects intermediates for many other interconnecting pathways and acts as a hub connecting metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids.
T. Gaisl, L. Bregy, N. Stebler, M. T. Gaugg, T. Bruderer, D. García-Gómez, A, Moeller, F. Singer, E. I. Schwarz, C. Benden, P. M-L Sinues, R. Zenobi, M. Kohler
We aimed at defining profiles of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a novel real-time mass spectrometry technique. In this prospective matched case-control study, 30 patients with CF, and 30 healthy control 4 subjects were matched one-to-one according to age, gender, and smoking state.
Xue Li, Dan D. Huang, Rui Du, Zhi J. Zhang, Chak K. Chan, Zheng X. Huang, Zhen Zhou
Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have aroused considerable interest, since they can serve as biomarkers for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure in a non-invasive manner. In this work, we present a protocol to characterize the exhaled VOCs in real time by using secondary nanoelectrospray ionization coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Sec-nanoESI-HRMS).
While there has been progress in making use of breath tests to guide clinical decision making, the full potential of exhaled breath analysis still remains to be exploited. Here we summarize some of the reasons why this is the case, what we have done so far to overcome some of the existing obstacles, and our vision of how we think breath analysis will play a more prominent role …
L. Bregya, Y Nussbaumer-Ochsnerb, P. M-L Sinues, D. García-Gómez, Y. Suter, T. Gaisl, N. Stebler, M. T. Gaugg, M. Kohler, R. Zenobi
New mass spectrometry (MS) techniques analysing exhaled breath have the potential to better define airway diseases. Here, we present our work to profile the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using real-time MS, and relate this disease-specific breath profile to functional disease markers …
L. Bregya, D. García-Gómez, M. Kohler, Y Nussbaumer-Ochsnerb, P. M-L Sinues, Y. Suter, R. Zenobi, J. Schmitz
The present invention provides a method for determining whether a patient suffers from COPD, said method comprising the step of: a. providing at a sample comprising, or consisting of, exhaled breath of said patient to an ionization chamber of a mass spectrometer; b. simultaneously determining the presence, absence or relative concentration of at least two metabolites in said sample using …
While yeast is one of the most studied organisms, its intricate biology remains to be fully mapped and understood. This is especially the case when it comes to capture rapid, in vivo fluctuations of metabolite levels. According to the authors, the results suggest that a large number of metabolites produced by yeast from glucose neither are reported in the literature nor are their biochemical origins deciphered.
M. T. Gaugg, A. Engler, Y. Nussbaumer-Ochsner, L. Bregy, A. S Stöberl, T. Gaisl, T. Bruderer, R. Zenobi, M. Kohler and P. M-L Sinues
The authors explore whether real-time breath research & analysis by SESI-HRMS is suitable to monitor changes at the metabolic level due to inhaling bronchodilator medication. The experimental results strengthen the notion that certain biochemical processes can be monitored.
Omega-oxidation is a fatty acid degradation pathway that can occur alternatively to the dominant b-oxidation. The dysregulation of fatty acid oxidation has been related with a variety of diseases, termed fatty acid oxidation disorders. This work shows evidence for real-time detection in exhaled breath of the complete series of saturated linear w-hydroxyalkanoic acids, w-oxoalkanoic acids and alkanedioic acids with carbon chain lengths of 5-15.
I. A. Ratiu, T. Ligor, Victor B.-Bintintan, B. Buszewski
Bacteria are the main cause of many human diseases. Typical bacterial identification methods, for example culture-based, serological and genetic methods, are time-consuming, delaying the potential for an early and accurate diagnosis and the appropriate subsequent treatment.
Our main goal was to gain further insights into the mechanism by which gas-phase analytes are ionized by interaction with plumes of electrospray solvents. We exposed target vapors to electrosprays of either water or deuterated water and mass analyzed them …
Canines remain the gold standard for explosives detection in many situations, and there is an ongoing desire for them to perform at the highest level. This goal requires canine training to be approached similarly to scientific sensor design. A sensitive, real-time (∼1 s) vapor analysis mass spectrometer was developed to provide tools, techniques, and knowledge to better understand, train, and utilize canines.
Early and often subclinical pulmonary infection and pronounced neutrophilic inflammation are major contributors to CF-related morbidity. There is a causal relationship between high airway neutrophil elastase activity and the development of bronchiectasis. Early detection of disease and disease-associated complications is crucial for implementing timely therapeutic measures …
Y. Nussbaumer-Ochsner, M.T. Gaugg, L. Bregy, A. Engler, S. A. Sophie, T. Gaisl, P. M-L Sinues, M. Kohler, R. Zenobi
Recently we found markers in exhaled breath discriminating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from healthy controls using real-time mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to validate the previously found disease specific metabolic profile of COPD in an independent cohort of patients suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease …
P. M-L Sinues, Y. Nussbaumer Ochsner, M.T. Gaugg, L. Bregy, A. Engler, R. Zenobi, M. Kohler.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is recognized as a distinct clinical disorder, however, the diagnosis method remains elusive. Metabolic profiling of biopsied tissue specimens has shown promise to gain insights into IPF pathogenesis. In view of this, the authors hypothesized that the analysis of exhaled metabolites may also provide further insights.
The authors successfully identified metabolic patterns in exhaled breath, which discriminate COPD patients with and without frequent exacerbations. They propose that their findings correlate with the increased oxidative stress caused by elevated nitric oxide production in response to the pulmonary inflammation.
HUANG Lei, LI Xue, XU Meng, HUANG Zhengxu, ZHOU Zhen
Human breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which would be potentially helpful for studying disease diagnosis and environmental exposure. However, owing to limitations in current analytical methods, only the compounds with molecular weights <300 have been widely reported in exhaled human breath.
R. R. Farrell, J. Fahrentrapp, D. Garcia Gomez, P. M-L Sinues, and R. Zenobi
Even though sugar and acidity measurements are the most common indices of grape maturity, it is well recognized that they provide only basic information related to wine quality. In this preliminary study te authors use SESI-MS to analyze VOCs directly from intact grapes without sample concentration.
The time-of-day of drug application is an important factor in maximizing efficacy and minimizing toxicity. Real-time in vivo mass spectrometric breath analysis and research of mice was deployed to investigate time-of-day variation in ketamine metabolism. Different production rates of ketamine metabolites were found in opposite circadian phases.
RATIONALE: Direct mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods make it possible to monitor the molecular compositions of hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled human breath in real time. Mass resolution and mass accuracy play important roles for direct MS analysis, especially for the low-concentration isobaric compounds in non-target research.
D. García-Gómez, T. Gaisl, L. Bregy, A. Cremonesi, P. M-L Sinues, M. Kohler, and R. Zenobi
Amino acids are frequently determined in clinical chemistry. However, current analysis methods are time-consuming, invasive, and require sample preparation. The authors hypothesized that plasma concentrations of amino acids can be estimated by measuring their concentrations in exhaled breath.
D. García-Gómez, T. Gaisl, L. Bregy, P. M-L Sinues, M. Kohler and R. Zenobi
Disorders in tryptophan metabolism result in diseases such as vitamin B6 responsive xanthurenic aciduria, hydroxy-kynureninuria, tryptophanuria and Hartnup disease. The authors hypotesized that breath analysis may reveal compounds that are metabolically linked to tryptophan. The mass range of detected metabolites reached up to 265 u, which is beyond the mass range limit (150–200 u) of competing breath research techniques such as PTR or SIFT-MS.
Breast cancer screening and presurgical diagnosis are currently based on mammography, ultrasound and more sensitive imaging technologies; however, noninvasive biomarkers represent both a challenge and an opportunity for early detection of cancer …
Coupling a SESI source and a HRMS (Orbitrap), the authors were able to identify exogenous compounds associated to smoking, as well as endogenous metabolites suggesting increased oxidative stress in smokers. According to the authors, most of these compounds correlated significantly with smoking frequency and allowed accurate discrimination of smokers and non-smokers.
Chemical analysis of aerosols collected from electronic cigarettes (ECs) has shown that these devices produce vapors that contain harmful and potentially harmful compounds. Conventional analytical methods used for the analysis of electronic cigarettes do not reflect the actual composition of the aerosols generated because they usually neglect the changes in the chemical composition that occur during the aerosol generation process and after collection.