Non-separative mass spectrometry methods for non-invasive medical diagnostics based on volatile organic compounds: A review
Ana María Casas-Ferreira, Miguel del Nogal-Sanchez*, Jose Luis Perez-Pavon, Bernardo Moreno-Cordero
a b s t r a c t
In this review, an assessment of non-separative methods based on mass spectrometry used to analyse volatile organic compounds in the field of bioanalysis is performed. The use of non-separative methods based on mass spectrometry has been established as an attractive option for analysing compounds. These instrumental configurations are suitable for biomedical applications because of their versatility, rapid output of results, and the wide range of volatile organic compounds that can be determined. Here, techniques such as headspace sampling coupled to mass spectrometry, membrane introduction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and ion mobility mass spectrometry, are evaluated. Samples involving non-invasive methods of collection, such as urine, saliva, breath and sweat, are mainly considered. To the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive review of all the non-separative instrumental configurations applied to the analysis of gaseous samples from all matrices non-invasively collected has not yet been carried out. The assessment of non-separative techniques for the analysis of these type of samples can be considered a key issue for future clinical applications, as they allow real-time sample analysis, without patient suffering. Any contribution to the early diagnosis of disease can be considered a priority for the scientific community. Therefore, the identification and determination of volatile organic compounds related to particular diseases has become an important field or research.