Breath pharmacokinetics

Every living organism breathes in one way or another. We do it between 17,000 and 30,000 times every day.
Each exhalation carries several thousand molecular species that reflect our metabolism in that particular moment.
Breath research via SUPER SESI is non invasive, and can be continuously monitored, offering an excellent window to the metabolism.

 

Selected scientific literature:
- Breath PharmaCokinetics -


Metabolic effects of inhaled salbutamol determined by exhaled breath analysis

 Time traces for C14H26O4, for two subjects before and after inhaling salbutamol & placebo

Time traces for C14H26O4, for two subjects before and after inhaling salbutamol & placebo

M. T. Gaugg, A. Engler, Y. Nussbaumer-Ochsner, L. Bregy, A. S Stöberl, T. Gaisl, T. Bruderer, R. Zenobi, M. Kohler and P. M-L Sinues

The authors explore whether real-time breath research & analysis by SESI-HRMS is suitable to monitor changes at the metabolic level due to inhaling bronchodilator medication. The experimental results strengthen the notion that certain  biochemical processes can be monitored.


Expanding metabolite coverage of real-time breath analysis by coupling a universal SESI source and a HRMS. A pilot study on tobacco smokers

 Box plot and linear regression  of  trimethyl-silylacetonitrile vs No. of cigarrettes.

Box plot and linear regression  of trimethyl-silylacetonitrile vs No. of cigarrettes.

M. T. Gaugg, D. Garcia Gomez, C. Barrios-Collado, G. Vidal-de-Miguel, M. Kohler, R. Zenobi and P. M-L Sinues

Coupling a SESI source and a HRMS (Orbitrap), the authors were able to identify exogenous compounds associated to smoking, as well as endogenous metabolites suggesting increased oxidative stress in smokers. According to the authors, most of these compounds correlated significantly with smoking frequency and allowed accurate discrimination of smokers and non-smokers.


Real-Time Quantification of Amino Acids in the Exhalome by SESI-MS: A Proof-of-Principle Study

 Longitudinal amino acid profiles in 3 subjects over 12 h. Individual and grouped amino acids showed similar results, starting with high concentrations in fasting conditions that decreased after meals.

Longitudinal amino acid profiles in 3 subjects over 12 h. Individual and grouped amino acids showed similar results, starting with high concentrations in fasting conditions that decreased after meals.

D. García-Gómez, T. Gaisl, L. Bregy, A. Cremonesi, P. M-L Sinues, M. Kohler, and R. Zenobi

Amino acids are frequently determined in clinical chemistry. However, current analysis methods are time-consuming, invasive, and require sample preparation. The authors hypothesized that plasma concentrations of amino acids can be estimated by measuring their concentrations in exhaled breath.


SESI-HRMS reveals tryptophan pathway metabolites in exhaled human breath

 Tryptophan metabolites detected in breath by means of  SESI-HRMS  (red). Pink, pathways related to a disease. Blue, reactions related to a drug. Green, other reactions known in Homo sapiens.

Tryptophan metabolites detected in breath by means of SESI-HRMS (red). Pink, pathways related to a disease. Blue, reactions related to a drug. Green, other reactions known in Homo sapiens.

D. García-Gómez, T. Gaisl, L. Bregy, P. M-L Sinues, M. Kohler and R. Zenobi

Disorders in tryptophan metabolism result in diseases such as vitamin B6 responsive xanthurenic aciduria, hydroxy-kynureninuria, tryptophanuria and Hartnup disease. The authors hypotesized that breath analysis may reveal compounds that are metabolically linked to tryptophan. The mass range of detected metabolites reached up to 265 u, which is beyond the mass range limit (150–200 u) of competing breath research techniques such as PTR or SIFT-MS.


Super Sesi use cases